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A false water table is the primary cause of wet basements, deteriorating foundation walls, and cracking floors. It is “false” because it is temporary. It lasts for ten days to two weeks, and it is weather-driven. When you get heavy rain, the area outside your foundation walls (backfill area) fills up with water. Why does it fill with water?
Creating a Place for a False Water Table
When they first built your house, an area approximately eight feet is empty around the entire foundation outside of your walls. Then they take the dirt dug out of the ground to build your foundation and backfill the open space. Backfill has been rolled over, bulldozed, and piled up. It loses a lot of its density.
When they put that backfill around your entire foundation, they tamp it down. It will never get as dense as the existing undisturbed soil called “hardpan clay.” We like to call the backfill soil “soft pan clay.”
Hardpan clay does not absorb water all that well. When it rains, water will go down into it and travel through the hardpan clay using a network of capillaries formed over many years. All the water traveling through the hardpan clay will dump into the soft pan clay surrounding your house. It will saturate and fill that confined area as it goes higher and higher. The higher it goes, the more pressure it creates with the weight of the water. Your foundation walls will attempt to sustain the full force of pressure called “hydrostatic pressure.”
Importance of a Strong Basement Floor
The slab floor plays a significant role in sustaining the dangerous pressure outside your walls. It is imperative to keep your floor intact, with a minimum of 3.5-inch thickness, and up against the walls. Many waterproofing companies, and fly-by-night contractors, compromise the structural strength by completely removing the floor from the wall. They never return it to a code-compliant thickness or keep some of the original floor up against the walls. They have taken the floor’s support away from the walls, and it can lead to cracking.
Why Do Basement Floors Crack?
The other thing a false water table does as it gets higher, the water forces its way down into the ground and comes up underneath the floor. It can produce cracks in your floor. Most people think the cracks are caused by settling. It is not settling. It is hydrostatic pressure that has pushed up and cracks that floor.
98% of the time, the whole reason why you have a water issue in your basement is because of a false water-table on the outside of your walls. If you install a shallow, narrow gutter or box drainage system, you will not be able to speed up the dropping of your false water-table.
If you get the correct drainage, you will be able to drop the false water table quickly, eliminating stress on your walls and beneath your floor. The water pressure will never get a chance to happen.
Effects of Acidic Groundwater
Concrete is porous. The waterproofing on the outside of your foundation walls, applied during construction, usually deteriorates in 3, 4, 5 years, after which it will allow water to get absorbed into your walls. When water is absorbed from your backfill area, it absorbs some of the soil in with it. Dirt in the northeast is notorious for having an acidic quality. Concrete is made of sand, stone, and lime. Lime is the glue that holds it together. Lime and acid are on the opposite ends of the PH scale.
The white powder you see forming on your basement walls is the lime being leeched out of your concrete wall. That white powder is called efflorescence. The quicker you can get rid of that false water table outside your basement walls, and from coming up underneath your floor, the less stress is on your foundation. If you can control the false water table, you can slow down your whole foundation’s aging process.
Choosing a Basement Waterproofing System
The waterproofing system you install has a lot to do with the entire aging process of your whole house. If your foundation walls move, they will crack a bit. Your entire home will twist, turn, and resettle to a new position. It causes warp flooring, windows can get out of alignment, and even your walls can pull from the roof. Moisture can get in and cause problems in your attic. Many people don’t realize that many roof problems usually start in the basement from movement in the foundation.
It is crucial to choose the right basement waterproofing system for your particular type of water problem.
Choose a system that will:
- Remove water quickly enough to keep the hydrostatic level low.
- Do not compromise the structural integrity of your foundation.
- Return a code-compliant thickness of concrete.
- Only a company confident in their work will give a lifetime transferrable warranty.
If you need to contact a company now, do not hesitate to contact us. We will be more than happy to give you a free no-obligation inspection and quote for your basement or crawl space water problem. Give us a call at 888-748-2002 or fill out our online form.
Basements should have engineering tabs made during basement waterproofing for a strong foundation. Leaving sections of your floor on the footer is vital.
A false water table is the primary cause of wet basements, deteriorating foundation walls, and cracking floors. It is “false” because it is temporary.
Basement flooding usually occurs when groundwater finds the path of least resistance. There are six things you can do to prevent flooding inside your basement.
A monolithic slab foundation is created by pouring a single layer of concrete to form a slab and footing. The construction process is faster and low cost.